Traumatic Brain Injury

Fact: An estimated 5.3 million Americans are living today with disability related to traumatic brain injury

What is a Traumatic Brain Injury?

Traumatic brain injury, often referred to as TBI, is most often an acute event similar to other injuries. That is where the similarity between traumatic brain injury and other injuries ends. One moment the person is normal and the next moment life has abruptly changed.

In most other aspects, a traumatic brain injury is very different. Since our brain defines who we are, the consequences of a brain injury can affect all aspects of our lives, including our personality. A brain injury is different from a broken limb or punctured lung. An injury in these areas limit the use of a specific part of your body, but your personality and mental abilities remain unchanged. Most often, these body structures heal and regain their previous function.

Brain injuries do not heal like other injuries. Recovery is a functional recovery, based on mechanisms that remain uncertain. No two brain injuries are alike and the consequence of two similar injuries may be very different. Symptoms may appear right away or may not be present for days or weeks after the injury.

One of the consequences of brain injury is that the person often does not realize that a brain injury has occurred.

The above information has been taken from

What Causes Traumatic Brain Injury

  • Open head Injury
  • Closed Head Injury
  • Deceleration Injuries
  • Chemical/Toxic
  • Hypoxia
  • Tumors
  • Infections
  • Stroke
Brain Injury Facts:

Of all types of injury, those to the brain are among the most likely to result in death or permanent disability.

Brain injury is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide.

Traumatic brain injury is the leading cause of seizure disorders.

In the United States Annually: 

  • One million Americans are treated and released from hospital emergency departments as a result of traumatic brain injury (TBI).
  • 230,000 people are hospitalized and survive
  • 80,000 people are estimated to be discharged from the hospital with some TBI-related disability
  • 50,000 people die
An estimated 5.3 million Americans are living today with disability related to traumatic brain injury.

Most studies indicate that males are far more likely to incur a TBI as females.

The highest rate of injury occurs in between the ages of 15-24 years. Persons under the age of 5 or over the age of 75 are also at higher risk.

The above information has been taken from North American Brain Injury Society website
Symptoms of Traumatic Brain Injury

Physical symptoms
  • Loss of consciousness for a few seconds to a few minutes
  • No loss of consciousness, but a state of being dazed, confused or disoriented
  • Headache
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Fatigue or drowsiness
  • Difficulty sleeping
  • Sleeping more than usual
  • Dizziness or loss of balance
Sensory symptoms
  • Sensory problems, such as blurred vision, ringing in the ears, a bad taste in the mouth or changes in the ability to smell
  • Sensitivity to light or sound
Cognitive or mental symptoms
  • Memory or concentration problems
  • Mood changes or mood swings
  • Feeling depressed or anxious
What are the different levels of TBI?
  • Mild – Awake; eyes open. Also called a concussion. Symptoms can include confusion, memory, and attention difficulties, headache, and behavioral problems.
  • Moderate – Lethargic; eyes open to stimulation. Some brain swelling or bleeding causing sleepiness, but still arousable.
  • Severe – Coma; eyes do not open, even with stimulation. Associated with 20-50% death rate or severe disabilities. It is in this category that many lives can be saved by application of BTF’s TBI Guidelines.
Levels of TBI have been taken from
Want to learn more?

following are organizations and/or websites dedicated to providing information and education surrounding Traumatic Brain Injury. These organizations are dedicated to research, education, awareness, and/or support. They are listed in Alphabetical order without any preference or prejudice. Listing these organizations is not a recommendation or referral in any regard for seeking treatment or consultation or support for treatment.

A Simple Brain Injury Support Group
Brain Injury Association of America
Brain Injury National Network
Brain Injury Network
North American Brain Injury Society
The Brain Trauma Foundation
Traumatic Brain Injury
Traumatic Brain Injury Survival Guide